Instructions for use of pheromones

(© Dr. Franz Pühringer, Häusern 4, A-4817 St. Konrad, Austria)

The pheromone baits are to be hung up on flowers, bushes, or on a rope in a height of 1-1,5 m (e. g. between two trees, across the wind).
(Species developing (as larva) in low plants often use to fly lower than species developing beyond the bark of bushes and trees!)
The distance between the baits should be not less than 0,8-1 m, because the pheromones are composed of mixtures of different compounds and are, thus, affecting each other!.
There should be light wind for spreading of the scent.
The males attracted by the pheromones are caught by net when approaching the pheromone bait.

The daily flight activity is characteristic for each species (a bit also depending on the weather)!
spp. for example are attracted mainly in the morning and forenoon, other species in the afternoon or evening (see
Pheromone attraction of clear wing moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) II).

Almost alle Sesiidae species can be attracted by the 6 (8/10) Wageningen pheromones, also species not mentioned and even in other continents.
The baits must be observed permanently, because the attracted males only stay for a rather short time at the pheromone (at most approx. 1 minute).

Success is thus depending on many factors:
- the right pheromone

- the right locality
- the right season (time of the year)
- the right time of the day
- suitable weather and
- attention to catch the specimen.
So one will often test the pheromones without success!

The pheromone baits should be stored cool (and closed) between the tests and should be frozen at -20° C when not used for a longer time. They will then stay attractive for years (or even decades).
Contamination of the pheromones (by each other) should be avoided.

All attracted specimens should be recorded for scientific evaluation (species, pheromone, time of attraction). A copy of the protocol would be highly appreciated.